Posts

Chlorophyll

What is Chlorophyll and what is it used for?

Chlorophyll is a chemoprotein that gives plants and algae their green colour. It is also commonly known to be related to protoheme, the red pigment of blood. Chlorophyll has been used clinically for over half a century for various symptoms and conditions. It also removes toxins from the liver, which makes it a great detox aid.

Benefits and Medicinal Uses of Chlorophyll

medicinalNatural chlorophylls are not known to be toxic, and no toxic effects have been attributed to chlorophyllin despite more than 50 years of clinical use in treating humans.

Traditionally, Chlorophyll has been used to improve bad breath and acts as natural antiperspirant against body odor including odors of the urine, feces. Moreover, chlorophyll has for more than 50 years been commonly used to reduce local inflammation and promote healing of infected and slow-healing wounds. More recently chlorophyll has been used to help remove various toxins via the liver and remains a key compound for improving the function of essential detoxification pathways. Research suggests it can be used as an anti-inflammatory agent for conditions, such as pancreatitis as well as exhibiting potent antioxidant and chemoprotective activities. Science has demonstrated it may be an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment of herpes simplex,  benign breast disease,chemoprevention, tuberculosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Type 2 and obesity are also being explored as areas where chlorophyll can also be used.

Below is a list of conditions that chlorophyll has shown a positive effect on

Cancer (laser therapy adjunct): Preliminary evidence suggests that chlorophyll may aid in the reduction of side effects associated with photodynamic therapies such as those used in management of malignant tumors. A recent study showed that human colon cancer cells undergo cell cycle arrest after treatment with chlorophyllin. The mechanism involved inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase activity. Ribonucleotide reductase plays an important role in DNA synthesis and repair, and is a target of currently used cancer therapeutic agents. This provides a potential new avenue for chlorophyllin in the clinical setting, sensitizing cancer cells to DNA damaging agents

Fibrocystic breast disease: The benefits of chlorophyll in benign breast disease may be attributed to its ability to alter liver enzyme pathways involved in estrogen metabolism. A combination product containing chlorophyll may be beneficial for this condition, but more research is needed to confirm these preliminary results. 

Herpes: Clorophyll may treat herpes simplex and herpes zoster, although more research is needed in this area.

Pancreatitis (chronic): Chlorophyll-a may reduce the mortality rate of experimental pancreatitis. Additional study is needed in this area.

Pneumonia (active destructive): Chlorophyll may help to regulate T lymphocyte counts in patients with active destructive pneumonia. Further studies are required to further elaborate on the immune-modifying effects of chlorophyll.

Poisoning (reduce Yusho symptoms): Yusho is a poisoning caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls, specifically polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A chlorophyll-rich diet may increase PCDF and PCB elimination, but further high quality research is needed.

Protection from aflatoxins: Chlorophyll may be of use as a chemopreventative agent due to its ability to inhibit the tumor-promoting effects of carcinogens. Chlorophyll may act to improve the detoxification of toxins involved in cancer promotion. However, more research is needed in this area.

Reduction of odor from incontinence/bladder catheterization: Based on historical use, chlorophyll has been suggested to improve bodily odor in colostomy patients. Despite empirical use, clinical research did not support these findings.

Rheumatoid arthritis: Diets high in chlorophyll have been hypothesized to modify intestinal flora resulting in improved management of immune disorders including rheumatoid arthritis. More evidence is needed to support the use of chlorophyll inautoimmune diseases.

Tuberculosis: Preliminary evidence suggests that chlorophyll intake duringchemotherapy treatment in patients with tuberculosis may improve immune parameters and free radical indices, such as malonic dialdehyde. Additional study is needed in this area.

What foods contain Chlorophyll?

medicinal 2Chlorophyll is found in green plants; generally the darker green the higher content.  It can be obtained from green leafy vegetables (broccoli, Brussel sprouts, cabbage, lettuce, and spinach), algae (Chlorella and Spirulina), wheat grass, and numerous herbs (alfalfa, damiana, nettle, and parsley. Chlorophyll can easily be implemented into your diet through juices and smoothies, salads and stir fries.

The chlorophyll contents of selected vegetables are presented in the table below

Chlorophyll Content of Selected Raw Vegetables
Food Serving Chlorophyll (mg)
Spinach 1 cup 23.7
Parsley ½ cup 19.0
Cress, garden 1 cup 15.6
Green beans 1 cup 8.3
Arugula 1 cup 8.2
Leeks 1 cup 7.7
Endive 1 cup 5.2
Sugar peas 1 cup 4.8
Chinese cabbage 1 cup 4.1

chlorophyll

What is Chlorophyllin? 

Chlorophyllin is a semi-synthetic mixture of sodium copper salts derived from chlorophyll and unlike natural chlorophyll, chlorophyllin is water-soluble – not fat-soluble. Most chlorophyll supplements available in the supermarket and health stores contain some chlorophyllin as it is less expensive than the natural substance.

References

http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phytochemicals/chlorophylls/#intro

http://www.healthline.com/natstandardcontent/chlorophyll

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002893.htm

greens

Kale

What is Kale?

Kale is a member of the cruciferous family and is a highly nutrient dense vegetable. It is an excellent source of calcium, iron, beta-carotene, vitamin A, Vitamin C and vitamin E. Kale is very often used in green juices and smoothies due to its health benefits.

Benefits & Medical Uses of Kale

medicinalWhen chewing kale, (and other brassicas broccoli and cabbage) they release sulphoraphanes, which boost the body’s ability to remove toxins. Moreover, the indole-3-carbinole in brassicas promotes DNA repair and may stop cancer-cell growth. Research suggests that kale is effective in preventing and fighting bladder, breast, colon, ovary and prostate cancer.

Vitamin E in kale can preserve elasticity in the skin and prevent stretch marks. It is also known to generally support pregnancy. Kale is also a great source of vitamin K, which is necessary for bone growth and needed to make thrombin, the substance that allows blood to clot.

Tip

To retain the most nutrients, eat raw, steam or stir fry rather than boil and chop the leaves at the very last moment.

Recipes with Kale

White Bean, Greens and Tomato Gratin

medicinal 24 servings. To make bread crumbs, whirl two or three slices of day-old French bread in a food processor or blender to fine crumbs.

  • 1 large bunch of kale
  • 2 Tbs. olive oil
  • 2 medium cloves garlic, finely chopped
  • 2 cups cooked or canned white beans, rinsed and drained if canned
  • 2 medium tomatoes, peeled, seeded and chopped
  • ½ cup vegetable broth
  • ½ tsp. dried thyme
  • ½ tsp. salt

Topping

  • 1 cup fresh bread crumbs
  • 3 Tbs. olive oil
  • ⅛ tsp. salt
  1. Preheat oven to 350°F. Grease 9-inch round or 10-inch oval gratin or baking dish. Remove tough stems from greens and rinse well. Stack greens and cut into thin strips.
  2. In Dutch oven, heat oil over medium-high heat. Add garlic and stir 30 seconds. Add greens and cook until tender, tossing often, about 7 minutes. Remove from heat. Add beans, tomatoes, broth, thyme and salt and mix well. Spoon into prepared gratin dish, spreading evenly.
  3. Topping: In small bowl, mix all ingredients. Sprinkle evenly over top of greens mixture. Bake until hot, about 40 minutes.

kale1

Crispy Kale Chips

medicinal 2Betcha can’t eat just one of these light, crispy snacks. Nutritional yeast gives them a tangy, almost cheesy flavor. If you are concerned about gluten, check to make sure the brand of nutritional yeast you use was grown on beets, not barley.

  • 1 12-oz. bunch curly kale, center
  • stems removed, each leaf torn
  • into 4 pieces (6 cups)
  • 2 Tbs. olive oil
  • 1 Tbs. lemon juice
  • ½ tsp. sea salt
  • 3 Tbs. nutritional yeast

1. Place kale in bowl. Rub oil, lemon juice, and salt into leaves with hands. Add nutritional yeast, and toss well.

2. Spread kale onto dehydrator trays without overlapping. Dehydrate 2 to 4 hours, or until dry and crispy. Turn off dehydrator, and cool completely.

kale2

Nutritional Values in Kale

Nutrient Value pr 100g
Energy 49 kcal
Protein 4.3 g
Fat 0.9 g
Carbohydrate 8 g
Calcium 150 mg
Iron 1.5 mg
Magnesium 47 mg
Phosphorus 92 mg
Potassium 491 mg
Sodium 38 mg
Zinc 0.6 mg
Vitamin C 120 mg
Thiamin 0.1 mg
Riboflavin 0.1 mg
Niacin 1 mg
Vitamin B6 1.3 mg
Folate 31 µg
Vitamin A, RAE 500 µg
Vitamin A, IU 9990 IU
Vitamin K 704.8 µg
Saturated fat 0.09 g
Monounsaturated 0.05 g
Polyunsaturated 0.34 g

Resources

Watts, Charlotte (2011) “100 best foods for pregnancy” Parragon.

Manheim, Jason (2011) “The healthy green drink diet”. Skyhorse Publishing

kale3

Vitamin K

What is Vitamin K?

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin.

Function

Vitamin K is known as the clotting vitamin, because without it blood would not clot. Some studies suggest that it helps maintain strong bones in the elderly.

Food Sources

The best way to get the daily requirement of vitamin K is by eating food sources. Vitamin K is found in the following foods:

  • Green leafy vegetables, such as kale, spinach, turnip greens, collards, Swiss chard, mustard greens, parsley, romaine, and green leaf lettuce
  • Vegetables such as Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage
  • Fish, liver, meat, eggs, and cereals (contain smaller amounts)

Vitamin K is also made by the bacteria that line the gastrointestinal tract.

Side Effects

Vitamin K deficiency is very rare. It occurs when the body can’t properly absorb the vitamin from the intestinal tract. Vitamin K deficiency can also occur after long-term treatment with antibiotics.

People with vitamin K deficiency are usually more likely to have bruising and bleeding.

If you take blood thinning drugs (such as anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs), you may need to limit vitamin K foods. You should know that vitamin K or foods containing vitamin K can affect how these drugs work.

It is important for you to keep vitamin K levels in your blood about the same from day to day. Ask your health care provider how much vitamin K-containing foods you should eat.

Recommendations

The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine Recommended Intakes for Individuals – Adequate Intakes (AIs) for vitamin K:

Infants

  • 0 – 6 months: 2.0 micrograms per day (mcg/day)
  • 7 – 12 months: 2.5 mcg/day

Children

  • 1 – 3 years: 30 mcg/day
  • 4 – 8 years: 55 mcg/day
  • 9 – 13 years: 60 mcg/day

Adolescents and Adults

  • Males and females age 14 – 18: 75 mcg/day
  • Males and females age 19 and older: 90 mcg/day

Resources

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002407.htm

parsley

Folate (a B Vitamin)

What is folate and what does it do?

Folate is a B-vitamin that is naturally present in many foods. A form of folate, called folic acid, is used in dietary supplements and fortified foods.

Our bodies need folate to make DNA and other genetic material. Folate is also needed for the body’s cells to divide. This is particularly important for people with Cystic Fibrosis to have in their diets.

How much folate do I need?

The amount of folate you need depends on your age. Average daily recommended amounts are listed below inmicrograms (mcg) of dietary folate equivalents (DFEs).

All women and teen girls who could become pregnant should consume 400 mcg of folic acid daily from supplements, fortified foods, or both in addition to the folate they get naturally from foods.

Life Stage Recommended Amount
Birth to 6 months 65 mcg DFE
Infants 7–12 months 80 mcg DFE
Children 1–3 years 150 mcg DFE
Children 4–8 years 200 mcg DFE
Children 9–13 years 300 mcg DFE
Teens 14–18 years 400 mcg DFE
Adults 19–50 years 400 mcg DFE
Adults 51–70 years 400 mcg DFE
Adults 71+ years 400 mcg DFE
Pregnant teens and women 600 mcg DFE
Breastfeeding teens and women 500 mcg DFE

What foods provide folate?

Folate is naturally present in many foods and food companies add folic acid to other foods, including bread, cereal, and pasta. You can get recommended amounts by eating a variety of foods, including the following:

  • Vegetables (especially asparagus, Brussels sprouts, and dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach and mustard greens).
  • Fruits and fruit juices (especially oranges).
  • Nuts, beans, and peas (such as peanuts, black-eyed peas, and kidney beans).
  • Grains (including whole grains; fortified cold cereals; enriched flour products such as bread, bagels, cornmeal, and pasta; and rice).
  • Folic acid is added to many grain-based products. To find out whether folic acid has been added to a food, check the product label.

Beef liver is high in folate but is also high in cholesterol, so limit the amount you eat. Only small amounts of folate are found in other animal foods like meats, poultry, seafood, eggs, and dairy products.

What kinds of folic acid dietary supplements are available?

Folic acid is available in multivitamins and prenatal vitamins. It is also available in B-complex dietary supplements and supplements containing only folic acid.

Am I getting enough folate?

Most people get enough folate. However, certain groups of people are more likely than others to have trouble getting enough folate:

  • Teen girls and women aged 14–30 years (especially before and during pregnancy).
  • Non-Hispanic black women.
  • People with disorders that lower nutrient absorption (such as celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease).
  • People with alcoholism.

 What happens if I don’t get enough folate?

Folate deficiency is rare in the United States, but some people get barely enough. Getting too little folate can result in megaloblastic anemia, which causes weakness, fatigue, trouble concentrating, irritability, headache, heart palpitations, and shortness of breath. Folate deficiency can also cause open sores on the tongue and inside the mouth as well as changes in the color of the skin, hair, or fingernails.

Women who don’t get enough folate are at risk of having babies with neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Folate deficiency can also increase the likelihood of having a premature or low-birth-weight baby.

What are some effects of folate on health?

Scientists are studying folate to understand how it affects health. Here are several examples of what this research has shown.

Neural tube defects

Taking folic acid regularly before becoming pregnant and during early pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects in babies. But about half of all pregnancies are unplanned. Therefore, all women and teen girls who could become pregnant should consume 400 mcg of folic acid daily from supplements, fortified foods, or both in addition to the folate they get naturally from foods.

Since 1998, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has required food companies to add folic acid to enriched bread, cereal, flour, cornmeal, pasta, rice, and other grain products sold in the United States. Because most people in the United States eat these foods on a regular basis, folic acid intakes have increased and the number of babies born with neural tube defects has decreased since 1998.

Preterm birth, congenital heart defects, and other birth defects

Taking folic acid might reduce the risk of having a premature baby and prevent birth defects, such as congenital heart problems. But more research is needed to understand how folic acid affects the risk of these conditions.

Cancer

Folate that is found naturally in food may decrease the risk of several forms of cancer. But folate might have different effects depending on how much is taken and when. Modest amounts of folic acid taken before cancer develops might decrease cancer risk, but high doses taken after cancer (especially colorectal cancer) begins might speed up its progression. For this reason, high doses of folic acid supplements (more than the safe upper limit of 1,000 mcg) should be taken with caution, especially by people who have a history of colorectal adenomas (which sometimes turn into cancer). More research is needed to understand the roles of dietary folate and folic acid supplements in cancer risk.

Heart disease and stroke

Some scientists used to think that folic acid and other B-vitamins might reduce heart disease risk by lowering levels of homocysteine, an amino acid in the blood. But although folic acid supplements do lower blood homocysteine levels, they don’t decrease the risk of heart disease. Some studies have shown that a combination of folic acid with other B-vitamins, however, helps prevent stroke.

Dementia, cognitive function, and Alzheimer’s disease

Folic acid supplements with or without other B-vitamins do not seem to improve cognitive function, but more research on this topic is needed.

Depression

People with low blood levels of folate might be more likely to suffer from depression and might not respond as well to treatment with antidepressants as people with normal folate levels.

Folic acid supplements might make antidepressant medications more effective. But it is not clear whether these supplements help people with both normal folate levels and those with folate deficiency. More research is needed to learn about the role of folate in depression and whether folic acid supplements are helpful when used in combination with standard treatment.

Can folate be harmful?

Folate that is naturally present in food is not harmful. Folic acid in supplements and fortified foods, however, should not be consumed in amounts above the safe upper limit, unless recommended by a health care provider.

Taking large amounts of folic acid might hide a vitamin B12 deficiency. Folic acid can correct the anemia but not thenerve damage caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. This can lead to permanent damage of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. High doses of folic acid might also increase the risk of colorectal cancer and possibly other cancers in some people.

The safe upper limits for folic acid are listed below.

Ages Safe Upper Limit
Birth to 6 months Not established
Infants 7–12 months Not established
Children 1–3 years 300 mcg
Children 4–8 years 400 mcg
Children 9–13 years 600 mcg
Teens 14–18 years 800 mcg
Adults 1,000 mcg

Are there any interactions with folate that I should know about?

Folic acid supplements can interact with several medications. Here are some examples:

  • Folic acid could interfere with methotrexate (Rheumatrex®, Trexall®) when taken to treat cancer.
  • Taking anti-epileptic medications such as phenytoin (Dilantin®), carbamazepine (Carbatrol®, Tegretol®, Equetro®, Epitol®), and valproate (Depacon®) could reduce blood levels of folate. Also, taking folic acid supplements could reduce blood levels of these medications.
  • Taking sulfasalazine (Azulfidine®) for ulcerative colitis could reduce the body’s ability to absorb folate and cause folate deficiency.

Resources

http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Folate-QuickFacts/

Vitamin E

What is vitamin E and what does it do?

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble nutrient found in many foods. In the body, it acts as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from the damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals are compounds formed when our bodies convert the food we eat into energy. People are also exposed to free radicals in the environment from cigarette smoke, air pollution, and ultraviolet light from the sun.

The body also needs vitamin E to boost its immune system so that it can fight off invading bacteria and viruses. It helps to widen blood vessels and keep blood from clotting within them. In addition, cells use vitamin E to interact with each other and to carry out many important functions.

How much vitamin E do I need?

The amount of vitamin E you need each day depends on your age. Average daily recommended intakes are listed below in milligrams (mg) and in International Units (IU). Package labels list the amount of vitamin E in foods and dietary supplements in IU.

Life Stage Recommended Amount
Birth to 6 months 4 mg (6 IU)
Infants 7–12 months 5 mg (7.5 IU)
Children 1–3 years 6 mg (9 IU)
Children 4–8 years 7 mg (10.4 IU)
Children 9–13 years 11 mg (16.4 IU)
Teens 14–18 years 15 mg (22.4 IU)
Adults 15 mg (22.4 IU)
Pregnant teens and women 15 mg (22.4 IU)
Breastfeeding teens and women 19 mg (28.4 IU)

What foods provide vitamin E?

Vitamin E is found naturally in foods and is added to some fortified foods. You can get recommended amounts of vitamin E by eating a variety of foods including the following:

  • Vegetable oils like wheat germ, sunflower, and safflower oils are among the best sources of vitamin E. Corn and soybean oils also provide some vitamin E.
  • Nuts (such as peanuts, hazelnuts, and, especially, almonds) and seeds (like sunflower seeds) are also among the best sources of vitamin E.
  • Green vegetables, such as spinach and broccoli, provide some vitamin E.
  • Food companies add vitamin E to some breakfast cereals, fruit juices, margarines and spreads, and other foods – read the product labels. It is always best to get the nutrients naturally.

What kinds of vitamin E dietary supplements are available?

Vitamin E supplements come in different amounts and forms. Two main things to consider when choosing a vitamin E supplement are:

  1. The amount of vitamin E: Most once-daily multivitamin-mineral supplements provide about 30 IU of vitamin E, whereas vitamin E-only supplements usually contain 100 to 1,000 IU per pill. The doses in vitamin E-only supplements are much higher than the recommended amounts. Some people take large doses because they believe or hope that doing so will keep them healthy or lower their risk of certain diseases.
  2. The form of vitamin E: Although vitamin E sounds like a single substance, it is actually the name of eight related compounds in food, including alpha-tocopherol. Each form has a different potency, or level of activity in the body.

For a healthy person with a nutritious and balanced diet, it should not be necessary to take vitamin E supplements.

Vitamin E from natural (food) sources is listed as “d-alpha-tocopherol” on food packaging and supplement labels. Synthetic (laboratory-made) vitamin E is listed as “dl-alpha-tocopherol.” The natural form is more potent. For example, 100 IU of natural vitamin E is equal to about 150 IU of the synthetic form.

Some vitamin E supplements provide other forms of the vitamin, such as gamma-tocopherol, tocotrienols, and mixed tocopherols. Scientists do not know if any of these forms are superior to alpha-tocopherol in supplements.

Am I getting enough vitamin E?

The diets of most Americans provide less than the recommended amounts of vitamin E. Nevertheless, healthy people rarely show any clear signs that they are not getting enough vitamin E (see next question for information on the signs of vitamin E deficiency).

What happens if I don’t get enough vitamin E?

Vitamin E deficiency is very rare in healthy people. It is almost always linked to certain diseases where fat is not properly digested or absorbed. Examples include Crohn’s disease, cystic fibrosis, and certain rare genetic diseases such as abetalipoproteinemia and ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED). Vitamin E needs some fat for the digestive system to absorb it.

Vitamin E deficiency can cause nerve and muscle damage that results in loss of feeling in the arms and legs, loss of body movement control, muscle weakness, and vision problems. Another sign of deficiency is a weakened immune system.

What are some effects of vitamin E on health?

Scientists are studying vitamin E to understand how it affects health. Here are several examples of what this research has shown.

Heart disease

Some studies link higher intakes of vitamin E from supplements to lower chances of developing heart disease. But the best research finds no benefit. People in these studies are randomly assigned to take vitamin E or a placebo(dummy pill with no vitamin E or active ingredients) and they don’t know which they are taking. Vitamin E supplements do not seem to prevent heart disease, reduce its severity, or affect the risk of death from this disease. Scientists do not know whether high intakes of vitamin E might protect the heart in younger, healthier people who do not have a high risk of heart disease.

Cancer

Most research indicates that vitamin E does not help prevent cancer and may be harmful in some cases. Large doses of vitamin E have not consistently reduced the risk of colon and breast cancer in studies, for example. A large study found that taking vitamin E supplements (400 IU/day) for several years increased the risk of developing prostate cancer in men. Two studies that followed middle-aged men and women for 7 or more years found that extra vitamin E (300–400 IU/day, on average) did not protect them from any form of cancer. However, one study found a link between the use of vitamin E supplements for 10 years or more and a lower risk of death from bladder cancer.

Vitamin E dietary supplements and other antioxidants might interact with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. People undergoing these treatments should talk with their doctor or oncologist before taking vitamin E or other antioxidant supplements, especially in high doses.

Eye disorders

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), or the loss of central vision in older people, and cataracts are among the most common causes of vision loss in older people. The results of research on whether vitamin E can help prevent these conditions are inconsistent. Among people with early-stage AMD, a supplement containing large doses of vitamin E combined with other antioxidants, zinc, and copper showed promise for slowing down the rate of vision loss.

Mental function

Several studies have investigated whether vitamin E supplements might help older adults remain mentally alert and active as well as prevent or slow the decline of mental function and Alzheimer’s disease. So far, the research provides little evidence that taking vitamin E supplements can help healthy people or people with mild mental functioning problems to maintain brain health

Can vitamin E be harmful?

Eating vitamin E in foods is not risky or harmful. In supplement form, high doses of vitamin E might increase the risk of bleeding (by reducing the blood’s ability to form clots after a cut or injury) and of serious bleeding in the brain (known as hemorrhagic stroke). The highest safe level of intake from supplements for adults is 1,500 IU/day for natural forms of vitamin E and 1,100 IU/day for the synthetic form. The highest safe levels for children are lower than for adults. Some recent research suggests that intakes of vitamin E below these upper safe levels could increase the risk of prostate cancer in men. Vitamin E might also increase the risk of death in some adults with chronic health conditions, but this does not seem to be the case in healthy people.

Are there any interactions with vitamin E that I should know about?

Vitamin E dietary supplements can interact or interfere with certain medicines that you take. Here are some examples:

  • Vitamin E can increase the risk of bleeding in people taking anticoagulant or antiplatelet medicines, such as warfarin (Coumadin®).
  • In one study, vitamin E plus other antioxidants (such as vitamin C, selenium, and beta-carotene) reduced the heart-protective effects of two drugs taken in combination (a statin and niacin) to affect blood-cholesterollevels.
  • Taking antioxidant supplements while undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer could alter the effectiveness of these treatments.

Resources

http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminE-QuickFacts/

almonds