1 Month Without Coffee

Getting the Shivers

I don’t consider myself as a big coffee drinker. However, since I started working full time I’ve been having 1-2 coffees every day during the work week and maybe one during the weekend. I found that I would have slight shivers and a rather high pulse by the end of the workday. I also felt my skin getting very dry, particularly in my face. Moreover, felt that I was becoming more and more dependent on coffee to kick start my system in the morning and afternoon. Furthermore, my quality of sleep seemed somewhat reduced, but I didn’t think much into it. After all, everyone drinks coffee, right?

coffee4Before the Christmas holidays, one of my colleagues stopped his intake of caffeine for a bit. He would normally have 6-7 cups of coffee and a bottle or two of Pepsi Max per day. When he suddenly stopped feeding himself all the caffeine he claimed that he started having bad head aches, nausea and felt irritable. After staying away from it for a while he said the head aches and nausea faded away and his mood went back to normal. He also said he had better sleeps at night.

Hearing this, I thought I might try and hold off from coffee for a month and see if I could escape the shivers, high pulse and dryness at the end of my workdays. The first week I was really caving a big cup of coffee when getting in to work. I also felt very tired throughout the day. However, it slowly wore off, and by the second week I didn’t really think about coffee that much. Interestingly, I also felt that I had more restful sleeps every night.

Other Side Effects of Coffee

Most people have a lifestyle and diet that makes the body very acidic. With high levels of stress, the brain creates adrenaline and other chemicals that produce an acidic environment in the body. Unfortunately, the Western diet mainly consists of food and drinks that creates high acidic levels in the body. With a high intake of foods containing sugar, dairy, wheat, deep fried and other Fast foods, and then flushing it down with soft drinks, coffee or alcohol,  the pH levels develops way too far into the acidic side of the scale. As my main focus in this article is coffee, I will stick to the effect of this popular drink – I will be writing a post on the balance of alkaline and acidic levls in the body shortly, so stay tuned.

Coffee can result in:

  • More acidic body (leading to more inflammation)
  • Restless sleep
  • Leach precious minerals from our systems
  • Shivers and high pulse
  • Dehydrating the body
  • Caffeine dependence
  • Bad breath
  • Discoloring of the teeth

Alternatives to Coffee

coffee3I found that being in an office working in front of a computer the whole day makes you want to have little treats quite frequently – simply because it is stagnant work. I tend to want a snack or a drink because I’m actually a bit bored and want a distraction. Coffee is the most common drink to have, and makes you feel more awake and focused at the same time. However, as mentioned; after a while off the caffeine I didn’t reach the same levels of tiredness throughout the day. I found that drinking various types of tea (my favorites are green tea, chamomile tea and chai tea with organic soy milk), coffee alternatives such as Bambu Coffee Substitute (picture), and even water was just as good.

I found that reaching for the coffee is all a habit. When the body is dehydrated by 2% of normal levels, we can perform up to 20% poorer (read more about this in “Water“), so just by restoring those levels we automatically regain energy to continue on.

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Results & Discoveries

As mentioned, during the month that I didn’t drink coffee I had no shivers or high pulse when leaving work. Neither did my face feel dry. Importantly, I also fell asleep faster and had better quality sleeps every night. Another side effect of this experiment that I did not expect was the feeling of cleanness. I actually felt that my body was somewhat more pure. I don’t know whether this was because of the acidity of my body going down or as a result of better sleep or even the absence of coffee itself. Either way it felt great! As much as I appreciate the taste, smell and feeling of coffee, I’ll be aiming at having it only occasionally and fully enjoy that treat.

Below is my first coffee after a month off; can’t remember last time I enjoyed it this much! ★

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Resources

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002445.htm

Lemon

Benefits and Medicinal Uses of Lemon

medicinalLemon is low in calories, carbohydrates and hardly contains any fat.  It is an acidic fruit, containing about 8% citric acid, but when ingested it turns highly alkaline with pH 9.5. Lemon is therefore an excellent contributor to keeping the body’s optimum alkaline state. Our general diet is highly acidic, which can cause wrinkles, dry skin, joint stiffness, fatigue and bone loss. It is therefore important to balance it out with alkaline foods to assist slowing and reversing of these ageing problems. Operating in an alkaline state makes every system in the body work at its highest performance level, and your overall wellbeing is improved.

Further to being very alkaline, lemon is also an excellent source of vitamin C. Additionally it contains vitamin A, various vitamin B and calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron and phosphorous. Adding lemon to the daily diet stimulates the production of enzymes and digestive juices, enhancing the absorption of iron ad calcium.

Lemon’s Youthing Benefits

  • Speedy skin repair – The high vitamin C content aids repair, which naturally slows with age. Vitamin C is needed for the production of collagen (the essential protein that keeps the skin looking young). The Vitamin C is also an excellent immune system booster. Bulk vitamin C powder is available here: http://www.powdercity.com/products/vitamin-c
  • Improving digestion – stimulates the digestive juices, which reduce bloating, heartburn, nausea, constipation as well as other digestive issues that increase with age
  • Helps lose weight – research has found that a diet high in vitamin C have better digestive systems, resulting in easier weight regulation
  • Can reduce sugar cravings – pectin (natural fiber in lemon skin) slows down the absorption of glucose and balancing blood sugar levels. Also, studies has actually shown that pectin can make you feel full up to 4 hours!
  • Helps prevent broken veins – the bioflavonoids increase blood flow & circulations (bye cold feet & hands!)
  • Improving bones & joints – high calcium content for the bones and vitamin C assists the development of collagen.
  • Lower levels of LDL (bad cholesterol)
  • Detoxing the body – improving the cleansing function of the liver and pancreas
  • Good anti-inflammatory – having diuretic properties, lemon assists the body in removing excess water retention, which reduces swelling

Tips for Buying Lemons

The thin-skinned but heavy ones contain more juice – which is what you want. Buy organic if possible to avoid the pesticides and other toxins. If you’re planning on using the skin, make sure to buy the ones that are organic and un-waxed.

Uses of Lemon in the Diet:

  • Juices & smoothies
  • Drinks (in teas, water etc.)
  • Dressings and sauces
  • With mains (e.g., seafood)
  • On salads
  • With fruit (also to keep apples from going brown)

Lemon Recipes

Lemon Coconut Squares

medicinal 2

  • 2 cups of unsweetened shredded coconut
  • 1/4 cup of freshly squeezed lemon juice
  • 1/4 cup of coconut oil
  • 1 tsp of grated lemon rind
  • 1 tsp of really good vanilla (powder or extract)
  • 2 tbsp of coconut nectar

1) Place all of the ingredients into your food processor and whiz away for about a minute… you want the mixture to appear creamy.
2) Press the mixture down tightly into a parchment lined loaf pan (or something similar in size) and toss it into the freezer for at least an hour…makes it easier to cut them into squares.
3) Remove the pan from the freezer once they’ve hardened and slice.
Note:  if you run a knife under hot water and wipe it dry, the yumminess will slice clean and smooth.

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Raw Lemon Curd

medicinal 2

  • 1/3 cup cashews, soaked 4-6 hours
  • 1/4 cup coconut butter
  • 1/4 cup fresh lemon juice
  • 2 tbsp water
  • zest of one large lemon
  • 3-4 tbsp raw agave nectar, to taste
  • pinch of salt
  • pinch of turmeric, for color (optional)

Drain and rinse cashews. Place in a food processor or Vitamix blender. Add coconut butter, lemon juice, and water. Blend until completely smooth. Add remaining ingredients and blend until well combined.

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Nutritional Values of Lemon

Nutrient Value pr 100g
Energy 29 kcal
Protein 1.1 g
Fat 0.3 g
Carbohydrate 9.3. g
Fiber 2.8 g
Sugar 2.5 g
Water 89 g
Calcium 26 mg
Iron 0.6 mg
Magnesium 8 mg
Phosphorus 16 mg
Potassium 138 mg
Sodium 2 mg
Zinc 0.06 mg
Vitamin C 53 mg
Thiamin 0.04 mg
Riboflavin 0.02 mg
Niacin 0.1 mg
Vitamin B6 0.08 mg
Folate 11 µg
Vitamin A, RAE 1 µg
Vitamin A, IU 22 IU
Vitamin E 0.15 mg
Saturated fat 0.4 g
Monounsaturated 0.01 g
Polyunsaturated 0.09 g

Resources:

http://www.rawfoodrecipes.com/recipes/lemon-coconut-squares.html

http://www.rawfoodrecipes.com/recipes/raw-lemon-curd.html

Peyton-Jones, Elizabeth (2011) “Eat Yourself Young”. Quadrille Publishing Limited.

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Beetroot

What is Beetroot

Beetroot, or beets, is a root vegetable with a strong purple/red colour. It is a great source of potassium and folic acid. Beetroot is very low in calories and contains almost no fat. It is considered to be one of the best vegetables to stay youthful and healthy as it assist the body’s ongoing process of cell division and DNA repair.  Most people only use the root, but the leaves attached to it are rich in vitamin K, folate, magnesium and fiber and should be utilized too.

Benefits and Medicinal Uses of Beetroot

medicinalThree Way Detoxer

1. The red pigments called betalain has unique detox benefits as they are highly antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, and extremely efficient at neutralizing toxins.

2. The high fibre content in beetroot is important for immune enhancing and detoxing. Around 70% of the body’s immune system is located in the gut, and evidence shows that eating beetroot causes changes in the intestinal flora. This has a positive impact on the immune health.

3. Beetroot is a great source of betaine, which is a liver protecting nutrient. The pigments are known to raise antioxidant enzymes in the liver.When your liver is functioning well, the body is able to get rid of toxins and  result in higher energy levels and weight loss being to achieve.

Anti-Aging

Betanin fights free radicals, which make this root vegetable essential for heart health. Many experts believes that the damage from free radicals is the underlying mechanism of aging itself. Betanin has also been proven to inhibit the growth of breast, stomach, colon, lung, and nervous-system tumor cells. Beetroot is also proven to prevent birth defects.

Experts claims that damage from free radicals is the underlying mechanism of aging itself

Other benefits of beetroot includes lowering LDL cholesterol as a result of the folate content. Moreover, beetroot has a very high content of folic acid – one of the most youthing vitamins (yet this is the world’s most common vitamin deficiency!) Folic acid is crucial for the body’s ongoing process of cell division and DNA repair.

Improve Stamina

Studies shows that the body can exercise for up to 16% longer before getting tired if you drink a large glass of beetroot juice (500ml) per day. You can therefore get fitter more quickly and stay at that level more easily. This is due to the fact that beetroot lower the resting heartbeat and significantly lowers blood pressure for up to 24 hours after intake.

Reduce Sugar cravings

Another great benefit is that eating beetroot and other sweet root vegetables helps calm sugar cravings.

Beetroots Youthing Benefits

  • Aids memory and decreases the risk of dementia by bringing blood to the brain
  • Aids weight loss thanks to its detox properties
  • Deminishes skin-related aging such as wrinkles and liver spots
  • Improves vision by increasing the oxidative supply to the retina
  • Increases regularity of bowel movements and the balance of intestinal flora
  • Increases stamnia and vitality
  • Lowers blood pressure and cholesterol

Folk Medicine Remedy

Beetroot is used in folk medicine as a blood stimulant gastritis, piles and constipation; mildly cardio-tonic. Resent studies has proven that having at least one glass of raw beetroot juice a day helps control cancer. This is because it oxidises the blood, which makes it hard for cancer cells to live. It is also said to lower blood pressure and blood cholesterol as well as detoxing the body.

Warning

The sap stains very severely and is hard to remove from clothing and skin. It can also colour your urine, but this is nothing to worry about.

Beetroot Recipes

Blueberry-Beet Smoothie

medicinal 2The night before you start the cleanse, prepare two beets: Wrap each beet in foil, and roast in a 200°C oven 1 hour, or until tender. Remove from oven. As soon as beets are cool enough to handle, remove foil, slip off and discard skin, and slice beets in half. Stash beets in the refrigerator for smoothies throughout the cleanse (you’ll have enough beets for three breakfasts and one snack smoothie). You can also make it with raw beetroot – this retains more nutrients in the vegetable. Makes 1 smoothie.

  • ½ medium roasted beet (4 oz.)
  • ½ cup fresh or frozen blueberries
  • ½ cup nut, oat, rice, or hemp milk, or water
  • ¼ avocado, cubed
  • ½ Tbs. lime juice
  • Raw honey to taste, optional
  • 2 ice cubes

1. Cut 1/2 beet into large chunks.

2. Transfer beet chunks to blender, and add all remaining ingredients; blend on high until smooth.

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Beet-and-Lentil Hummus

medicinal 2Makes 1 1/2 cups. Serve this colorful hummus with raw vegetables, such as carrot or celery sticks, red bell pepper, cucumber, or broccoli.
  • ½ cup black beluga lentils, rinsed and soaked overnight
  • 2 medium beets, peeled and cut into chunks
  • 1 clove garlic, peeled
  • 2 Tbs. tahini paste
  • 2 Tbs. cold-pressed olive oil
  • 2 Tbs. lemon juice
  • 2 tsp. grated lemon zest
  • 1 tsp. sea salt

1. Drain and rinse soaked lentils. Bring lentils, beets, and 1 cup water to a boil in medium saucepan. Reduce heat to medium-low, cover, and simmer 15 to 20 minutes, or until all water is absorbed.

2. Drop garlic into food processor while running to finely chop. Add tahini, oil, lemon juice, zest, and salt; process until creamy. Add lentils and beets, and blend on high until smooth. Season to taste.

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Nutritional Values of Beetroot 

Nutrient Value pr 100g
Energy 43 kcal
Protein 1.61 g
Fat 0.17 g
Carbohydrate 9.56 g
Fiber 2.8 g
Calcium 16 mg
Iron 0.8 mg
Magnesium 23 mg
Phosphorus 40.3 mg
Potassium 325 mg
Sodium 78 mg
Zinc 0.35 mg
Copper 0.08
Magnese 0.3
Selenium 1 µg
Vitamin C 4.9 mg
Thiamin 0.03 mg
Riboflavin 0.06 mg
Niacin 0.33 mg
Vitamin B6 0.9 mg
Folate 109 µg
Vitamin A  33 IU
Vitamin E 0.04 mg
Vitamin K 1.2 µg
Saturated fat 0.03 g
Monounsaturated 0.03 g
Polyunsaturated 0.06 g

Resources

Manheim, Jason (2011) “The healthy green drink diet”. Skyhorse Publishing

Yeager, Selene (2007) “The doctors book of food remedies”. Rodale

Peyton-Jones, Elizabeth (2011) “Eat Yourself Young”. Quadrille Publishing Ltd

http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/2912?fg=&man=&lfacet=&format=&count=&max=25&offset=&sort=&qlookup=beets

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Cinnamon

What is Cinnamon?

Cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka and southern India. The main part of the tree used commercially is the dried bark. Processed cinnamon bark products include Ceylon-type cinnamon bark oil, liquid extract, tincture, various aqueous or aqueous-alcoholic dried extracts, and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) soft extracts. Cinnamon leaf oil is also used, but to a lesser extent.

Part of cinnamon’s commercial popularity lies in its ability to both enhance and suppress flavor. When added to foods containing sugar, cinnamon exerts a synergistic effect and its aroma enhances the sweetness. Alternatively, cinnamon can help mask undesirable flavors and odors in foods and drugs.

Benefits & Medical Uses of Cinnamon

medicinalCinnamon bark and its oil is used in the pharmaceutical industry as an ingredient in products used for:

 

  • Asthma
  • Colds
  • Coughs
  • Diabetes
  • Fever-reducing
  • Expectorant properties
  • Treating bad breath
  • Diarrhea
  • Flatulence
  • Gastric distress
  • Impotence
  • Typhoid fever
  • Nausea and vomiting

Cinnamon bark oil is:

  • Antibacterial
  • Antifungal
  • Antimicrobial
  • An antioxidant
  • Antiviral
  • Larvicidal

Cinnamon has been employed for several millennia in traditional Eastern and Western medicine for:

  • Anorexia
  • Bloating
  • Dyspepsia with nausea
  • Flatulent colic
  • Spastic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract

Cinnamon is commonly used in Western Medicine to aid the blood sugar levels for people with diabetes.  It is used specifically in improving metabolic measures. It also has a glucose-lowering and blood sugar regulating effect.

Cinnamon displays numerous beneficial effects (and no toxicity), including promoting glycemic control, healthy fat parameters, reduction of insulin resistance, potentiation of the action of insulin, and amelioration of common complications associated with diabetes.

Some suggests that cinnamon has the ability to even out the caffeine absorption in the body. Instead of getting a high peak and a sudden drop from the caffeine, cinnamon is said to even it out to a longer and more balanced effect.

Cinnamon in Folk Remedy

This spice has been used in folk remedies for a wide range of conditions: “amenorrhea, arthritis, asthma, bronchitis, cancer, cholera, coronary problems, cough, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, fever, fistula, lumbago, lungs, menorrhagia, nephritis, phthisis [pulmonary tuberculosis or other disease that causes wasting of the body], prolapse, proctosis, psoriasis, spasms, tumors, vaginitis, warts, and wens.  Additional folk medicine uses include dyspnoea (shortness of breath or labored breathing caused by serious disease of the airways, heart, or lungs), eye inflammation, “frigidity,” impotence, neuralgia, rheumatism, toothache, and wounds. It also has been used to alleviate tongue paralysis, as well as externally to relieve poisonous insect stings and acne.

Uses of Cinnamon in Other Cultures

Ayurvedic medicine use cinnamon bark oil as a single drug to treat flatulence, impaired digestion and metabolism, intestinal tract inflammation, peptic ulcer, vomiting, hemorrhoids, failure of penile erection, worm infestation, dryness of mouth, thirst, rhinitis/sinusitis, acute pain of nervine origin, blood disorders, tubercular ulcers, scorpion bite, and toothache. Cinnamon leaf oil has been used externally for rheumatism and inflammation.

Also in the Ayurvedic system of medicine, the powdered inner bark (tvak) is indicated for treating throat and mouth diseases, dryness of mouth, thirst, urinary bladder diseases, hemorrhoids, worm infestation, rhinitis/sinusitis, and heart disease.

In Siddha medicine, the powdered inner stem bark is used for treating all types of poisons and toxins, dysentery, painful gastrointestinal disorders with indigestion, flatulence, and wheezing. In Unani medicine, the dried inner bark is used for complete suppression of urine formation and excretion, sexual debility, bad breath and asthma.

Foods With Cinnamon

Cinnamon is used in curry and tea blends, baked goods, beverages, canned fruit, confections, desserts, pickles, liqueurs, marinades, meats, sauces, soups, and chewing gum. In Spanish-speaking countries cinnamon (canela) is popular in chocolate. Cinnamon Is also used in making mulled wine which is often used as an apéritif to aid digestion. Furthermore, cinnamon bark essential oil is used in the food industry, and has replaced ground cinnamon in large part, as it can provide a uniform flavor to confectionery, meat, and other processed foods.

Cosmetics

Cinnamon bark essential oil is used in the perfume, and pharmaceutical industries. Due to its irritant and skin-sensitizing properties, cinnamon bark oil is used minimally in the perfume industry to add a musky, woody undertone. It is also a fragrance ingredient in soaps, toothpastes, and mouthwashes. Cinnamon  leaf oil is also employed as a fragrance and germicidal ingredient in soaps.

Cinnamon Recipes

Warm and Nutty Cinnamon Quinoa

medicinal 2Ingredients

  • 1 cup 1% low fat milk (organic)
  • 1 cup water
  • 1 cup quinoa (organic, hs note: rinse quinoa)
  • 2 cups blackberries (fresh, organic preferred)
  • 1/2 tsp ground cinnamon
  • 1/3 cup chopped pecans (toasted*)
  • 4 tsps agave nectar (organic, such as Madhava brand)
  • 1 cup quinoa (dry, yields approximately 3 cups cooked)
  • 13/4 cups water (or stock)
  • sea salt

Combine milk, water and quinoa in a medium saucepan. Bring to a boil over high heat. Reduce heat to medium-low; cover and simmer 15 minutes or until most of the liquid is absorbed. Turn off heat; let stand covered 5 minutes. Stir in blackberries and cinnamon; transfer to four bowls and top with pecans. Drizzle 1 teaspoon agave nectar over each serving.

Serves 4.

*While the quinoa cooks, roast the pecans in a 175C degree toaster oven for 5 to 6 minutes or in a dry skillet over medium heat for about 3 minutes.

cinnamon 3

Upside-Down Apple-Cinnamon Pie

medicinal 2Serves 8. If you don’t plan on serving this pie immediately, cool it in the skillet, then warm it for 10 minutes in a 175˚C oven before unmolding. This will keep the crust from getting soggy.

  • ¾ cup sugar – alternatively 5 drops of stevia extract / 1 tbs agave syrup / 1 tbs honey
  • 8 medium sweet-tart apples, such as Braeburn, peeled and cut into 12 wedges each (1.8kg)
  • 2 Tbs. lemon juice
  • 1 tsp. ground cinnamon
  • Refrigerated pastry for 1-crust pie, or 1 Perfect Every Time Piecrust
  1. Preheat oven to 175˚C. Spread sugar in even layer over bottom of 10-inch cast-iron or ovenproof skillet (not nonstick), and heat over medium-low heat. Cook 12 to 15 minutes, or until sugar has caramelized to a pale amber color, stirring often with wooden spoon. Remove from heat.
  2. Toss apple wedges with lemon juice and cinnamon in bowl. Arrange apple wedges flat-side down in concentric circles in skillet over caramel.
  3. Roll crust into 10-inch disc. Place dough over apples, folding edges inward to make a rim but covering apples completely. Make 2 to 3 small slits in dough to let steam escape while baking. Bake 1 hour 45 minutes to 2 hours, or until crust is golden brown.
  4. Cool 15 minutes on wire rack. Run knife around edges, then place large cake plate over skillet, and invert pie onto cake plate. Transfer any apples remaining in skillet into pie and smooth with knife
Apple Pie

Apple Pie

Nutritional Values in Cinnamon

 

Nutrient Value pr 100g
Energy 247 kcal
Protein 4 g
Fat 1.2 g
Carbohydrate 80.6 g
Fiber 53.1
Sugar 2.17
Calcium 1002 mg
Iron 8.3 mg
Magnesium 60 mg
Phosphorus 64 mg
Potassium 431 mg
Sodium 10 mg
Zinc 1.8 mg
Vitamin C 3.8 mg
Thiamin 0.02 mg
Riboflavin 0.04 mg
Niacin 1.3 mg
Vitamin B6 0.16 mg
Folate 6 µg
Vitamin A, RAE 15 µg
Vitamin A, IU 295 IU
Vitamin E 2.3 mg
Vitamin K 31.2 µg
Saturated fat 0.4 g
Monounsaturated 0.3 g
Polyunsaturated 0.07 g

Resources

http://cms.herbalgram.org/herbalgram/issue95/hg95-herbpro-cinnamon.html?ts=1381209258&signature=94db3ba337d8ecd8354b0273d457f235

http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/235?qlookup=cinnamon&fg=Spices+and+Herbs&format=&man=&lfacet=&max=25&new=1

sticks and powder

sticks and powder

Subi Markets

Weekend Activities

One of the weekend activities I really enjoy is to go to local fruit and veg markets and stock up for the following week. I can spend hours and hours on end buying fresh food, discover new spices and enjoying meals in the food court. Subiaco Markets (close to the railway station) is a great place to get fresh produce. It’s one of Perth’s largest undercover markets and has a wide variety of foods and other goods & services to offer.

Early Bird

If you want to avoid lots of people, you’ll have to be there byt 7:00am. It already starts to get busy around 7:30am! There are several fruit and vegetable shops in the market, but it also has juice stands, flower shops, fresh food outlets such as fish, butcher, bakeries, patisserie, whole foods, health foods and also a café & food court area. You can also find a large range of jewellery clothing and gift shops, plus beauty services including hairstylists and massage therapies.

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Many Markets

Perth has a lot of markets spread around the city. Another great market is the old Fremantle markets, which has a lot of history. There are also several farmer markets that are held at local schools over the weekends. Mt Claremont Farmers market and Subiaco Farmers market are worth checking out! ★

Pre Workout Foods

Is a Pre Workout Meal Vital?

Food eaten throughout the training week as well as food and fluid consumed during exercise is just as important. Consuming food and fluid before exercise should be seen as an opportunity to fine-tune carbohydrate and fluid levels and to ensure you feel comfortable.

When should I eat?

Food consumed before exercise is only useful once it has been digested and absorbed.  You therefore need to time your food intake so that the energy becomes available during the exercise period.  The time required for digestion depends on the type and quantity of food consumed.  Foods higher in fat, protein and fibre generally take longer to digest than other foods, and can cause stomach discomfort during exercise.  A general guide is to have a meal about 3-4 hours before exercise and/or a lighter snack about 1-2 hours before exercise.

What if I Exercise Early in the Morning?

If you do, try and opt for a light snack about an hour before exercise.  Examples are: Fruit or a museli bar on the way to training along with some fluid such as a glass of almond milk or juice.

What should I eat?

Food eaten before exercise should provide carbohydrate containing low GI complex carbohydrates, about 15-20 grams of protein and a combination of good fats (monounsaturated fats and omega 3′s). This combination of foods will break down slowly, keeping your energy levels consistent and provide the necessary nutrients to aid muscle growth. Most exercise sessions emphasizes on carbohydrate and fluid for the pre-event meal.

Some food suggestions suitable to eat 3-4 hours before exercise:

  • Salad with pumpkin and tofu
  • Tuna and salad sandwich (wholemeal) and an apple
  • pasta or rice with for example tomato, root vegetables and egg
  • Baked beans on toast (whole grain)
  • Quinoa and vegetables + banana
  • Fruit & vegetable smoothie
  • Fruit salad with nuts

Note: The main goal of pre workout meal is to keep your blood sugar levels consistent throughout your training session to prevent muscle catabolism (breakdown of muscle for fuel). Therefore low GI carbohydrates should form the basis of this meal in combination with lean sources of protein.

Some food suggestions suitable to eat 1-2 hours before exercise:

  • Fruit and vegetable smoothie
  • Sports bars (check labels for carbohydrate and protein content)
  • Raw chia seeds almond milk porridge with berries
  • Organic rolled oats with almond milk
  • Coconut milk yogurt
  • Fruit

The ideal pre-workout snack is one that is quickly digested and predominately consists of water and carbohydrates. Examples include solid foods like an orange, banana or grapes. Liquid snacks might include fruit juice, a pre workout shake or a sports drink.

Are Foods With a Low Glycemic Index Better?

Carbohydrate-containing foods have different effects on blood glucose levels.  Foods with a low glycaemic index (GI) cause a slower, sustained release of glucose to the blood, whereas foods with a high GI cause a rapid, short-lived rise in blood glucose.  Research has shown that low GI foods could be useful in the pre-event meal as they would result in a slower and more sustained release of glucose during exercise maintaining blood glucose levels for a longer period.

Athletes: What if I am too Nervous to Eat?

You will perform better when you are well-fuelled and well hydrated, and the pre-event meal could play an important role.  Athletes need to experiment to find a routine that works, and foods that are safe and familiar.  Liquid meal supplements such as protein shakes provide an alternative for anyone who has difficulty tolerating solid foods pre-exercise. Muesli bars and sports bars can be eaten if you nibble them slowly over the hours leading up to your game or competition.

Avoiding Carbohydrate Pre Workout

In some cases, eating carbohydrates can improve the outcome of the session.  However, a small percentage of people experience a drop in blood glucose levels and symptoms such as fatigue, shakiness and dizziness after consuming carbohydrate immediately before exercise.  This is a response to the increase in carbohydrate use that occurs after the intake, associated with a rise in the levels of the hormone, insulin.  However, for most people, this is a temporary event which is quickly corrected by the body without any side-effects.

What if I am Trying to Lose Weight?

Exercising in a fasted state (around 8 hours since the last meal) results in a greater proportion of fat being used as energy compared to doing the same workload after a carbohydrate-containing meal or snack.  However, you may be able to exercise harder and for a longer period if you consume carbohydrate before exercise.  As an overall, this will result in increased energy use and a greater contribution to fat loss.If your primary goal is to improve performance, have something to eat pre exercise.  If your primary goal is weight loss, (and do the same amount of exercise regardless of whether you eat or not), save your meal until after the session.

If your primary goal is weight loss, (and do the same amount of exercise regardless of whether you eat or not), save your meal until after the session.

Resources

http://www.ausport.gov.au/ais/nutrition/factsheets/competition_and_training/eating_before_exercise

http://www.sportsdietitians.com.au/resources/upload/GI_and_sports_performance.pdf

http://www.ausport.gov.au/ais/nutrition/factsheets/body_size_and_shape/increasing_muscle_mass

nuts and raisins

Vegetarian and Vegan Diets

What is a Vegetarian and Vegan Diet?

Although there are many variations of vegetarian diets, they all base their diets on foods of plant origin, but there are different levels of vegetarianism according to how much food derived from animals is also eaten. The groups can generally be split into 5 major categories:

  1. ‘Semi vegetarian’ eats poultry and/or fish, dairy foods and eggs, but no red meat;
  2. ‘Lacto vegetarian’ consumes dairy foods but no meat, poultry, fish or eggs;
  3.  ’Lacto-ovo vegetarian’ includes dairy foods and eggs, but no meat, poultry or fish;
  4. Pescetarian’ includes fish and other seafood, but no meat or poultry (while eggs and/or dairy foods may or may not be eaten); and
  5. A ‘vegan’ eats only foods of plant origin.

There are also some extreme forms of vegetarianism, like ‘fruitarians’ that eat nothing requiring a living organism to be killed, restricting their diet to fruits, nuts, honey and olive oil.

Why Go Vegetarian or Vegan?

Many people are vegetarians as a result of religious beliefs and some because they don’t want to support animals suffering. A lot of people also chose to not eat red meat as a result of research that links red meat consumption and health issues. Heart diseases and high cholesterol levels are two examples.

Vegans would almost certainly agree with the moral argument but would probably add that, unlike milk and eggs, plants contain no cholesterol and most plant foods have little ‘saturated fat‘ (a type of fat that is associated with increased risk of heart disease). But it is worth noting that coconut oil and palm oil are exceptions, in that most of the fat from these plant foods is saturated. However, please stay as far away as possible from palm oil as this breeds highly unethical behaviour against wild life (google or youtube it if you need more insight).

Arguments for a vegetarian diet are the higher levels of many vitamins, fibre, antioxidants and other substances that are of nutritional benefit in foods of plant origin.

Many vegetarians believe that, in addition to health benefits and moral considerations, there is also reduced environmental degradation (i.e. increased sustainability) associated with vegetarianism.

Do I Get All the Necessary Nutrients With a Vegetarian Diet?

Vegetarian diets, when properly planned, have been consistently found to provide the full range of protein, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and fibre necessary for optimal nutritional status.

However, vegetarian diets can lead to low iron status. Vegetarian teenage girls and women of child-bearing age are particularly at risk of iron-deficiency anaemia because red meat a good source of iron. Combining a source of vitamin C (such as fruit or fruit juice) with wheat-based cereal foods will increase the absorption of the iron available in the cereal. Eggs, legumes (a term that includes peas, beans, chickpeas, lentils, soy foods) and nuts are also significant sources of iron.

Do I Get Enough Nutrients With a Vegan diet?

A well-planned vegan diet can meet all nutritional requirements. However, some are at risk of developing B12 deficiency unless special effort is made to eat foods with this vitamin, or a vitamin supplement is taken. Although any diet that fails to address healthy eating principles can be deficient in essential nutrients, vegans may need to be especially cautious with their eating habits with regard to nutrients such as iron, calcium, zinc, iodine, selenium and omega-3 fats.

These nutrients can still be absorbed via supplementation. Supplement vendors like GNC, the Vitamin Shoppe, local grocery stores or online vendors such as Powder City provide the aforementioned nutrients in supplement form. It is most cost effective to purchase your supplements in bulk powder form. (ex: http://www.powdercity.com for Zinc)

Vitamin B12 is found only in animal foods, and studies have shown that both vegetarians and vegans generally have lower levels of vitamin B12 than do omnivores.  While it can take many years to become deficient, anyone following a vegan diet who doesn’t include a reliable source of vitamin B12 is at risk of becoming deficient over time.  If you follow a vegan diet (or you are vegetarian but don’t eat many dairy foods or eggs) you should either take a vitamin B12 supplement or include foods fortified with vitamin B12 in your diet regularly. This is particularly important for pregnant and breastfeeding women, to reduce the risk of deficiency in their babies.

If you’re tired of getting ripped off for vitamins and supplements from your local grocery or department stores, affordable and high quality supplements are at online retailers like Powder City or Hard Rhino. Their customer service is top notch and they offer free shipping to orders over $25.

Do I Get Enough Protein on a Vegetarian or Vegan diet?

One of the first things that stops people from going vegetarian or vegan is that they think their only source of protein is meat. Grain foods, legumes, potatoes, seeds and nuts are good sources of protein. Pepitas seeds are a good source – 36.7% of its weight is actually protein!

Although vegetarians and vegans have to make an effort to get enough of certain vitamins, is fair to say that vegetarians in Western nations often eat a diet that is closer to the recommended pattern of food intake. Vegetarian diets include higher intakes of cereal foods, vegetables (including legumes) and fruits—and therefore of dietary fibre—with lower intakes of fat  (particularly saturated fat) and salt.

Vegetarians in Western countries experience significantly less cancer, less heart disease, fewer strokes and generally live longer

What are the Benefits of Being on a Vegetarian or Vegan Diet?

medicinalThere is substantial evidence supporting that vegetarians in Western countries experience significantly less cancer, less heart disease, fewer strokes, and generally live longer than omnivores. Studies has shown that higher intake of beneficial dietary factors—available only in foods of plant origin— explains the better overall health of vegetarians.

Much research is still needed to determine the optimal diet for health and longevity (living to a ‘ripe old age’). Some nutritionists believe that a predominantly vegetarian diet, with low-moderate quantities of lean meat and moderate quantities of low- or reduced-fat dairy products will produce the best long-term health outcome. However, it is still true that strict vegetarianism (particularly the lacto and lacto-ovo varieties) is associated with better health outcome than an omnivorous diet.

Resources

http://www.nutritionaustralia.org/national/frequently-asked-questions/vegetarian-diets

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Chlorophyll

What is Chlorophyll and what is it used for?

Chlorophyll is a chemoprotein that gives plants and algae their green colour. It is also commonly known to be related to protoheme, the red pigment of blood. Chlorophyll has been used clinically for over half a century for various symptoms and conditions. It also removes toxins from the liver, which makes it a great detox aid.

Benefits and Medicinal Uses of Chlorophyll

medicinalNatural chlorophylls are not known to be toxic, and no toxic effects have been attributed to chlorophyllin despite more than 50 years of clinical use in treating humans.

Traditionally, Chlorophyll has been used to improve bad breath and acts as natural antiperspirant against body odor including odors of the urine, feces. Moreover, chlorophyll has for more than 50 years been commonly used to reduce local inflammation and promote healing of infected and slow-healing wounds. More recently chlorophyll has been used to help remove various toxins via the liver and remains a key compound for improving the function of essential detoxification pathways. Research suggests it can be used as an anti-inflammatory agent for conditions, such as pancreatitis as well as exhibiting potent antioxidant and chemoprotective activities. Science has demonstrated it may be an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment of herpes simplex,  benign breast disease,chemoprevention, tuberculosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Type 2 and obesity are also being explored as areas where chlorophyll can also be used.

Below is a list of conditions that chlorophyll has shown a positive effect on

Cancer (laser therapy adjunct): Preliminary evidence suggests that chlorophyll may aid in the reduction of side effects associated with photodynamic therapies such as those used in management of malignant tumors. A recent study showed that human colon cancer cells undergo cell cycle arrest after treatment with chlorophyllin. The mechanism involved inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase activity. Ribonucleotide reductase plays an important role in DNA synthesis and repair, and is a target of currently used cancer therapeutic agents. This provides a potential new avenue for chlorophyllin in the clinical setting, sensitizing cancer cells to DNA damaging agents

Fibrocystic breast disease: The benefits of chlorophyll in benign breast disease may be attributed to its ability to alter liver enzyme pathways involved in estrogen metabolism. A combination product containing chlorophyll may be beneficial for this condition, but more research is needed to confirm these preliminary results. 

Herpes: Clorophyll may treat herpes simplex and herpes zoster, although more research is needed in this area.

Pancreatitis (chronic): Chlorophyll-a may reduce the mortality rate of experimental pancreatitis. Additional study is needed in this area.

Pneumonia (active destructive): Chlorophyll may help to regulate T lymphocyte counts in patients with active destructive pneumonia. Further studies are required to further elaborate on the immune-modifying effects of chlorophyll.

Poisoning (reduce Yusho symptoms): Yusho is a poisoning caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls, specifically polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A chlorophyll-rich diet may increase PCDF and PCB elimination, but further high quality research is needed.

Protection from aflatoxins: Chlorophyll may be of use as a chemopreventative agent due to its ability to inhibit the tumor-promoting effects of carcinogens. Chlorophyll may act to improve the detoxification of toxins involved in cancer promotion. However, more research is needed in this area.

Reduction of odor from incontinence/bladder catheterization: Based on historical use, chlorophyll has been suggested to improve bodily odor in colostomy patients. Despite empirical use, clinical research did not support these findings.

Rheumatoid arthritis: Diets high in chlorophyll have been hypothesized to modify intestinal flora resulting in improved management of immune disorders including rheumatoid arthritis. More evidence is needed to support the use of chlorophyll inautoimmune diseases.

Tuberculosis: Preliminary evidence suggests that chlorophyll intake duringchemotherapy treatment in patients with tuberculosis may improve immune parameters and free radical indices, such as malonic dialdehyde. Additional study is needed in this area.

What foods contain Chlorophyll?

medicinal 2Chlorophyll is found in green plants; generally the darker green the higher content.  It can be obtained from green leafy vegetables (broccoli, Brussel sprouts, cabbage, lettuce, and spinach), algae (Chlorella and Spirulina), wheat grass, and numerous herbs (alfalfa, damiana, nettle, and parsley. Chlorophyll can easily be implemented into your diet through juices and smoothies, salads and stir fries.

The chlorophyll contents of selected vegetables are presented in the table below

Chlorophyll Content of Selected Raw Vegetables
Food Serving Chlorophyll (mg)
Spinach 1 cup 23.7
Parsley ½ cup 19.0
Cress, garden 1 cup 15.6
Green beans 1 cup 8.3
Arugula 1 cup 8.2
Leeks 1 cup 7.7
Endive 1 cup 5.2
Sugar peas 1 cup 4.8
Chinese cabbage 1 cup 4.1

chlorophyll

What is Chlorophyllin? 

Chlorophyllin is a semi-synthetic mixture of sodium copper salts derived from chlorophyll and unlike natural chlorophyll, chlorophyllin is water-soluble – not fat-soluble. Most chlorophyll supplements available in the supermarket and health stores contain some chlorophyllin as it is less expensive than the natural substance.

References

http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phytochemicals/chlorophylls/#intro

http://www.healthline.com/natstandardcontent/chlorophyll

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002893.htm

greens

Kale

What is Kale?

Kale is a member of the cruciferous family and is a highly nutrient dense vegetable. It is an excellent source of calcium, iron, beta-carotene, vitamin A, Vitamin C and vitamin E. Kale is very often used in green juices and smoothies due to its health benefits.

Benefits & Medical Uses of Kale

medicinalWhen chewing kale, (and other brassicas broccoli and cabbage) they release sulphoraphanes, which boost the body’s ability to remove toxins. Moreover, the indole-3-carbinole in brassicas promotes DNA repair and may stop cancer-cell growth. Research suggests that kale is effective in preventing and fighting bladder, breast, colon, ovary and prostate cancer.

Vitamin E in kale can preserve elasticity in the skin and prevent stretch marks. It is also known to generally support pregnancy. Kale is also a great source of vitamin K, which is necessary for bone growth and needed to make thrombin, the substance that allows blood to clot.

Tip

To retain the most nutrients, eat raw, steam or stir fry rather than boil and chop the leaves at the very last moment.

Recipes with Kale

White Bean, Greens and Tomato Gratin

medicinal 24 servings. To make bread crumbs, whirl two or three slices of day-old French bread in a food processor or blender to fine crumbs.

  • 1 large bunch of kale
  • 2 Tbs. olive oil
  • 2 medium cloves garlic, finely chopped
  • 2 cups cooked or canned white beans, rinsed and drained if canned
  • 2 medium tomatoes, peeled, seeded and chopped
  • ½ cup vegetable broth
  • ½ tsp. dried thyme
  • ½ tsp. salt

Topping

  • 1 cup fresh bread crumbs
  • 3 Tbs. olive oil
  • ⅛ tsp. salt
  1. Preheat oven to 350°F. Grease 9-inch round or 10-inch oval gratin or baking dish. Remove tough stems from greens and rinse well. Stack greens and cut into thin strips.
  2. In Dutch oven, heat oil over medium-high heat. Add garlic and stir 30 seconds. Add greens and cook until tender, tossing often, about 7 minutes. Remove from heat. Add beans, tomatoes, broth, thyme and salt and mix well. Spoon into prepared gratin dish, spreading evenly.
  3. Topping: In small bowl, mix all ingredients. Sprinkle evenly over top of greens mixture. Bake until hot, about 40 minutes.

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Crispy Kale Chips

medicinal 2Betcha can’t eat just one of these light, crispy snacks. Nutritional yeast gives them a tangy, almost cheesy flavor. If you are concerned about gluten, check to make sure the brand of nutritional yeast you use was grown on beets, not barley.

  • 1 12-oz. bunch curly kale, center
  • stems removed, each leaf torn
  • into 4 pieces (6 cups)
  • 2 Tbs. olive oil
  • 1 Tbs. lemon juice
  • ½ tsp. sea salt
  • 3 Tbs. nutritional yeast

1. Place kale in bowl. Rub oil, lemon juice, and salt into leaves with hands. Add nutritional yeast, and toss well.

2. Spread kale onto dehydrator trays without overlapping. Dehydrate 2 to 4 hours, or until dry and crispy. Turn off dehydrator, and cool completely.

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Nutritional Values in Kale

Nutrient Value pr 100g
Energy 49 kcal
Protein 4.3 g
Fat 0.9 g
Carbohydrate 8 g
Calcium 150 mg
Iron 1.5 mg
Magnesium 47 mg
Phosphorus 92 mg
Potassium 491 mg
Sodium 38 mg
Zinc 0.6 mg
Vitamin C 120 mg
Thiamin 0.1 mg
Riboflavin 0.1 mg
Niacin 1 mg
Vitamin B6 1.3 mg
Folate 31 µg
Vitamin A, RAE 500 µg
Vitamin A, IU 9990 IU
Vitamin K 704.8 µg
Saturated fat 0.09 g
Monounsaturated 0.05 g
Polyunsaturated 0.34 g

Resources

Watts, Charlotte (2011) “100 best foods for pregnancy” Parragon.

Manheim, Jason (2011) “The healthy green drink diet”. Skyhorse Publishing

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Garlic

What is Garlic?

Garlic is the edible bulb from a plant in the lily family. It has been used as both amedicine and a spice for thousands of years. Garlic’s most common folk or traditional uses as a dietary supplement are for high cholesterol, heart disease, and high blood pressure.

Medicinal Use of Garlic

medicinalMedicinal garlic comes in many forms, but raw garlic is most potent medicinally, and deodorized forms may have reduced medicinal action. According to a researcher at the National Cancer Insti- tute, garlic should be chopped and allowed to sit for 10-15 minutes before cooking to stabilize benefi- cial compounds and maximize garlic’s anti-cancer properties.

Garlic’s uses in folk medicine include treatments for bronchitis and respiratory problems, gastrointesti- nal problems, flatulence, leprosy, menstrual cramps, high blood pressure, diabetes and externally for warts, corns, arthritis, muscle pain, neuralgia and sciatica. It’s no wonder that garlic acquired the name poor man’s treacle, or cure-all. Recently, science has begun to confirm some of garlic’s long-standing medicinal uses. Garlic has been shown to lower blood cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar in studies and clinical trials and has also demonstrated anti-cancer, antibacterial, anti-fungal and anti-oxidant effects.

Benefits of Garlic

  • Preliminary research suggests that taking garlic may slow the development of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), a condition that can lead to heart disease or stroke.
  • Evidence suggests that taking garlic may slightly lower blood pressure, particularly in people with high blood pressure.
  • Some studies suggest consuming garlic as a regular part of the diet may lower the risk of certain cancers.

Side Effects and Cautions of Eating Garlic

Garlic may have some side effects due to disease, sensitiveness, in combination with medications etc. and if eating excessive amounts of it. Some are harmless and some more significant;

  • Breath and body odor, heartburn, upset stomach, and allergic reactions (these side effects are more common with raw garlic).
  • Garlic can thin the blood (reduce the ability of blood to clot) in a manner similar to aspirin. This effect may be a problem during or after surgery. Use garlic with caution if you are planning to have surgery or dental work, or if you have a bleeding disorder.
  • Garlic can irritate the digestive tracts of very young children, and some sources don’t recommend garlic for breastfeeding mothers. In addition, some individuals are allergic to garlic.
  • Garlic has been found to interfere with the effectiveness of saquinavir, a drug used to treat HIV infection. Its effect on other drugs has not been well studied.

Recipies with Garlic

Penne Pasta Salad with Shaved Parmigiano-Reggiano

medicinal 2A high-quality, aged Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese is essential to this recipe’s success: the bold, salty flavor curbs the need for extra fat or seasoning. The salad also makes a quick weeknight meal when served hot. Serves 6

  • 6 oz. penne rigate pasta
  • 2 cups broccoli florets
  • 9 cloves garlic, minced (3 Tbs.)
  • 3 Tbs. olive oil
  • ½ red jalapeño chile, seeded and chopped (1 Tbs.)
  • 10 fresh red or yellow grape tomatoes, halved
  • 1 oz. shaved or crumbled Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese

1. Cook pasta in large pot of boiling salted water 8 minutes. Add broccoli, and cook 1 minute more. Drain, reserving 1/4 cup cooking water.

2. Return pot to stove, and heat oil over medium heat. Sauté garlic in oil 1 minute. Add jalapeño, and cook 30 seconds. Stir in pasta mixture, tomatoes, and reserved cooking water. Transfer to large serving bowl, and season with salt and pepper, if desired. Cool to room temperature, and top with cheese.

garlic

Garlic & Kale Soup

CookingThis brothy soup provides heart-healthful nutrition on many levels: kaleand garlic are good for the cardiovascular system; wheat berries are high in fiber; and shiitake mushrooms contain eritadenine, an amino acid that speeds up processing of cholesterol in the liver.

  • ½ cup wheat berries
  • 2 Tbs. olive oil
  • 3.5 oz. shiitake mushrooms, stemmed and thinly sliced (1 cup)
  • 10 cloves garlic, peeled and thinly sliced
  • ¼ cup brown rice vinegar
  • 4 cups low-sodium vegetable broth
  • 1 bunch kale (10 oz.), stemmed and coarsely chopped

1. Soak wheat berries in large bowl of cold water overnight.

2. Heat oil in 2-qt. saucepan over medium heat. Add mushrooms, and season with salt, if desired. Sauté mushrooms 10 minutes, or until beginning to brown. Add garlic, and sauté 2 minutes more. Stir in vinegar; simmer until vinegar is almost evaporated, stirring to scrape up browned bits from pan.

3. Drain wheat berries, and add to mushroom mixture with vegetable broth and 1 cup water. Bring to a boil, then reduce heat to medium-low, and simmer 20 minutes. Add kale, and cook 10 to 20 minutes more, or until kale is tender. Season with salt and pepper, if desired.

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Nutritional Content in Garlic

Nutrient Value pr 100g
Energy 149 kcal
Protein 6.36 g
Fat 0.5 g
Carbohydrate 33 g
Sugar 1 g
Fiber 2.1 g
Calcium 181 mg
Iron 1.7 mg
Magnesium 25 mg
Phosphorus 153 mg
Potassium 401 mg
Sodium 17 mg
Zinc 1.16 mg
Vitamin C 31.2 mg
Thiamin 0.2 mg
Riboflavin 0.1 mg
Niacin 0.7 mg
Vitamin B6 1.2 mg
Folate 3 µg
Vitamin A  9 IU
Vitamin E 0.08 mg
Vitamin K 1.7 µg
Saturated fat 0.09 g
Monounsaturated 0.01 g
Polyunsaturated 0.25 g

Resources

http://nccam.nih.gov/sites/nccam.nih.gov/files/Herbs_At_A_Glance_Garlic_06-15-2012_0_0.pdf?nav=gsa

http://www.herbsociety.org/factsheets/Garlic%20Guide.pdf

http://www.herbsociety.org/factsheets/garlic.pdf

http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list?format=&count=&max=25&sort=&fg=Vegetables+and+Vegetable+Products&man=&lfacet=&qlookup=&offset=300

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